5 Things to Consider When Constructing Pavements

When constructing pavements and roads, there are many things to consider. Since it’s going to bear the traffic load, it should be strong enough to withstand the heavy weight and changing temperature. When constructing a pavement, the thickness of the pavement matters a lot.  

Constructing Pavements 

When companies like Delray Beach pavers that specializes in pavement constructing, they put into mid the traffic, environment, material and base characteristics. The following are the other considerations.  

Environmental Factors 

When constructing a pavement, the soil condition should be considered. Temperature and moisture are the top culprits why the pavement is damaged even before its expected lifespan. Once the moisture of the soil increases, its load bearing capacity decreases. This will lead to soil swelling and heaving. The pavement can sink or heave, just like a damaged house foundation.  

When the moisture in the pavement is stressed out too much because of the freezing temperature, it might cause the pavement to heave. The effects of the mentioned environmental factors can be eliminated or removed by removing the moisture and keeping it away from the base by using moisture resistant materials.  


Too much traffic will subject any kind of pavement to wear and damage. The amount of damage that the pavement will get depends on the number of vehicles and their weight that pass through the pavement over a given period of time. The engineers of road construction have estimated that the life expectancy of a pavement is 20 years.  

The general principle when it comes to road/pavement construction is that the heavier the vehicles and the more number they are, the thicker the pavement should be to be able to support all of them for many decades. The Asphalt Institute actually made a list of traffic class and their corresponding road type. Each road type has ideal pavement thickness, which also depend on the materials used.  

Subgrade Strength 

This factor has the greatest effect when it comes to determining the perfect thickness of the pavement. The principle is this; a weak subgrade will require a thick pavement so sufficiently bear the load of the traffic weight. The subgrade’s permeability and bearing capacity influences the total thickness of the pavement. In a pavement, there are three separate layers below the surface. These are the subgrade, sub base and the base.  

The subgrade could be undisturbed earth, natural or compacted till. The sub base consists of crushed stone or gravel (both clean course aggregate). If the heavy-duty surface requires additional layer of material, a sub base is installed.  

Pavement Width 

The width of the pavement will also depend on its purpose and the number of vehicles that will use it. Wide highways need to obviously wider than the community roads. A parking lot needs to be wider than those of the convenience store. The standard of the pavement width can be found in the zoning regulations. There would be minimum width requirements for driveways, roads, parking stalls, sidewalks, loading areas and others.

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How to do Simple Roofing Repairs

Roofs are not forever, though some last for long years. No matter what quality a roof has, damages and leaks can’t be avoided especially if you live in an area where the weather is harsh. Roof repair or replacement will depend on the type of tile or shingle you used. If you observe damages on your roof, you should call a Sayreville roofing contractor right away. There are repairs and replacements you can’t do on your own but we listed some simple roofing repairs you can follow.  

 Roofing Repairs


  • Cut a Tile or Shingle 

You can use an angle grinder for cutting clay and concrete tiles. Wooden shakes and shingles can be cut with a saw and asphalt shingles can be cut with a knife. Slates are scored by running a sharp nail along a guide line. The tiles with nibs can be nailed in place, and the nails are cut free. You can also lift the old tile from its furring strip.  

  • Fixing Damaged Shake 

Locating the damaged shake before fixing the leak will save you from a lot of troubles in fixing roof leaks. Go up on your roof; locate the damaged shake which is characterized by missing parts of cracks. If you already found it, extract the damaged shake. Slowly crack the shake apart. Using a hammer and chisel, split the shake apart into pieces.  

After you remove it, remove the nails and clean the space for the new shake. Remove the nails using the claw of the hammer. Measure the space of the shake and buy a new one with same measurements.  

  • Fixing Vent Pipe Flashing 

To start the process, remove the shingles on the roof above the chimney. Use a pry bar to lift them and do this carefully. Remove the metal flashing; insert a pry bar blade under the edge so you can lift the metal flashing. Lift it over the pipe and be careful not to know it out of place. Pull the nails that are left around the pipe, then fill the holes with roof cement.  

  • Repairing Minor Leaks 

Leaks become problematic if you don’t pay attention to it. Structures can be damaged further if you don’t locate and fix it. To locate the leak, pour water on the roof using a garden hose. Repeat the process around the suspected area. Make sure you have an assistant to notify you where the leak is.  

After the leak is identified, you will find the problematic shingle that has been causing the leak. If it’s missing, buy a new one. If curled out, straighten it. To straighten it, use an electric dryer. Avoid open flame because it will destroy it even more. After you extract and mend the curled shingle, attach it using asphalt roof cement.  

Those are simple roofing repairs you can do on your own, if you have past experience and skills on roofing of course. If you don’t have any skills or tools, you can contact a roofing company for assistance.  

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The Benefits You Get in Hiring Travel Agents

One of our goals in life is to travel, to see as many places as we can. Good thing if you have been traveling many times before, and you are familiar with the ins and outs of travel. But for those who don’t travel often, or to those who are just starting to travel, traveling can be a terrifying prospect because of the unfamiliarity of it. 

To fill in this need, this is where travel agents come in. They share their expertise with traveling and accommodate you to make your travel easier and smoother. Excellent travel agents like travel agency Boston will surely make your travel memorable and worthwhile. To convince you on hiring travel agents, here is a list of benefits you get in hiring them. 

 Travel Agents

  1. Save You Time

Preparing and setting yourself up in your travel would take so much time. You will need to research the best available transportation service, hotel service, car rentals, and so on; not to mention the time you will need to fill in information and the back and forth dialogue of the confirmation.  When you have a travel agent, you don’t have to do all this stuff because they will facilitate it for you. Additionally, they will give you tips on traveling that will certainly help you on the ground. 

  1. Save You Money

You may be doubtful of this second benefit because after all, you are paying the travel agent his money. But the truth is that travel agents know all the tricks there is to save money on traveling because they have all the connections and the knowledge about how to get discounts and upgrades. 

Take, for example, they might suggest a little change in your route of transportation, which will save you considerable amounts of money from your faring budget, but you still get to your desired destination. Or they can give you discounts on your lodging because they do so much business or they are friends of the tenants or owners. 

  1. Help you in Your Needs

Aside from saving you time and money, this item is probably the most worthy service of travel agents. When you are traveling, you are in unfamiliar grounds, and this can prompt a feeling of helplessness and panic in some. 

But if you have a travel agent that is one call away, you will feel at ease in traveling in the are because you are assured that there is someone you can call to if you encounter any problem. When a plane or a train’s service is delayed, then your travel agent can rebook you to another schedule, helping you to achieve your goals and preventing you to be hassled as much as possible.  

Aside from saving you from troubles, travel agents also have the knowledge of the city and they can give you excellent recommendations. For example, if you want to dine, they can suggest you a number of restaurants that will suit your wants and needs.

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